Biomarkers of aging

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Biomarkers of aging

Biomarkers of aging (BA) called parameters that reproducibly vary with aging qualitatively or quantitatively. Thus, the biomarkers of aging reflect functional age of whole organism or of individual organs and organ systems.

One of the main problem of BA definition is the criteria of it. There are several sets of aging biomarker criteria and the most simple and capacious set includes:

1. The biomarker should predict the outcome of a wide range of age-sensitive tests in multiple physiological and behavioral domains, in an age-coherent way, and do so better than chronological age.

2. It should predict remaining longevity at an age when 90% of the population is still alive, and do so for most of the specific illnesses that afflict the species under study.

3. Its measurement should not alter life expectancy or the outcome of subsequent tests of other age-sensitive tests.

Most simply, a biomarker would comprise a single entity, such as a particular serum protein. However, biomarkers can also consist of a panel of multiple genes, proteins, or metabolites, for example, or be combinatorial, in which a variety of different attributes are monitored. The beauty of a combinatorial systems biomarker is that it might not be limited to a particular level of biological organization. It can be a combination of quantifiable features on the level of an organism, organ, cell, protein, or gene. As an example, physiological data could be combined with the concentration of a specific secreted protein and the expression level of a particular gene. The identification of such biomarkers is initially require a quantitative, reproducible assessment of many profiles on an individual basis, ideally in longitudinal studies.